Afro-American Teachers

Mrs. Larry Brown (Christine Benton) Cash Upon completion of county and state examinations, she began her professional career with a contract to teach in a one-room school in Marion County. For five years she taught in rural schools, during which time she successfully lobbied to lengthen the school year for black children from five to eight months.



Afro-American Teachers 2
The Blake Family 
Christine Benton Cash  
Clarissa Thompson  She began teaching in Jefferson. Texas, in September, 1886. After three years' work there, she was elected to the position of First Assistant in the Fort Worth City School



Afro-American Teachers 1870 Census

Thomas Cooper 24 years olds, born in Missouri, living with wife, Vinnie, 22 years olds, born in Tennessee Beat No. 2,
Coleman Clark 40 years olds, born in Alabama, living with wife Maggie 33 years olds and daughter, Ada 9 years olds, both born in Texas Ward No. 2, Jefferson


Afro-American Teachers 1880 Census

Liza A. Crawford 21 years olds, born in Texas, living with Henry and Sarah Harris, Sarah's sister? 1st Ward, Jefferson,
Ethelin Viney 26 years olds, born in South Carolina, wife of William, preacher 1st Ward, Jefferson
Smith Cole 23 years olds, born in Texas, son of Alander and Mary Cole 3rd Ward, Jefferson
L.D. Honaday 25 years olds, born in Ohio 3rd Ward, Jefferson
C.W. Ray 22  years olds, born in Louisiana, boarding with Allen Pattan(50yrs) and wife 3rd Ward, Jefferson
C. Rosborough 30 years olds, born in Texas, widowed 3 children 4th Ward, Jefferson
Ben Adams 33 years olds, born in Texas 4th Ward, Jefferson
Harriet Parks 29 years olds, born in Texas, wife of James Parks 4th Ward, Jefferson
A.W. Stewart 26  years olds, born in Louisiana Precinct 2
Benjamin Simmons 22 years olds, born in Texas Precinct 3
Frank Johnson 22 years olds, born in Mississippi, son of Stephen and Susan Johnson Precinct 3
W.J. Hatchell 30 years olds, born in Texas Precinct 4  
Frank Colberk 32 years olds, born in Georgia Precinct 6
Louis Linden 48 years olds, born in Poland, white male boarding with Alfred Weatherall and his family who are African American   Precinct 3


Afro-American Teachers'  Certificates Granted by Summer Normal Institutes, 1884

D W Luster 23 years old, 3 years teaching, Single, Male, Second Grade Certificate Granted
J M Jones 19 years old, 0 years teaching, Single, Male, Third Grade Certificate Granted 
E W Edmonds 28  years old, 5 years teaching, Single, Male, Second Grade Certificate Granted  
T B Cooper 38  years old,  6 years teaching, Married, Male, First Grade Certificate Granted 
B J Simmons 24  years old, 3 years teaching, Single, Male, Second Grade Certificate Granted     
L M Martin 18 years old,  1 years teaching, Single, Female, Second Grade Certificate Granted     
Rosa Evans 19 years old,  1 years teaching, Single, Female, Third Grade Certificate Granted     
Carrie Caulder 18 years old,  1 years teaching, Single, Female, Third Grade Certificate Granted     
J C Brooks 22 years old,  2 years teaching, Single, Female, Second Grade Certificate Granted     
C J Tyler 19 years old,  1 years teaching, Single, Female, Third Grade Certificate Granted     


Afro-American Teachers'  Certificates Granted by Summer Normal Institutes, 1885

Wm H Sims Jr. 23 years old, 4.2 years teaching, Single, Male,  Second Grade Certificate Granted 

Dallas Herald Article Dec. 24, 1897

Marion County  Teachers' Institute

County Judge J. A. Armistead has organized a  teachers' institute for both white and colored teachers of this county, with J. A. Armistead, president Miss Alice Emmet vice president and Shelby Turner secretary. Colored Institute: J. W. Jamison president; Paul Matthews, vice president; J. B. Jones, secretary. The purpose is to build up the schools of the county to a higher standard.


Dallas Herald Article Sept 9, 1900

Negro Doctor Arrested
Charged at Greenville with causing death of a Negro woman

Greenville, Tex., Sept 8.- Dr. L.D. Key, a negro doctor, was arrested and jailed last evening charged with causing the death of Harriet Haywood, a colored girl who came here from Marion County. She was a teacher in Marion County.


The Jimplecute Article August 20, 1904

For this information of the public the following announcements are made: 
   The following named parties have been elected to teach in Marion county for next session 
   White School Dist No 5 - Mrs Mary Lawrence 
   Colored School Dist No 1 J H Holloman and Mrs L L Pitts 
    Dist No 2 Pearson Johns, America Cole, Mrs Carrie Azle and Mattie Rutherford 
    Rev C C Clark
Trustee of colored Dist No 5 has tendered his resignation to take effect at once Same has been accepted the vacancy to be filled in lure Munch Bailey colored has qualified as trustee of Dist No 6 he having been elected at last Trustee election.
   Ples Goynes, colored has this day been appointed School Trustee to succeed Atony Gant whose term has expired.
                                                                                                                                         T D Rowell County Judge, 


The Jimplecute Article September 10, 1904

Notice to School Patrons
     I give notice that on Tuesday September 13th I will make the apportionment of school money to the various school districts in the county for the ensuing school session and I request all persons who desire to transfer their children from one district to another to make said transfers not later than Monday September 12th The law provides that no transfers can be made lawfully after the apportionment of the money has been made 
    The following teachers have been elected to teach in the county the ensuing session 

    District No 4 White School Miss Inez Wurtsbaugh 
    District No 4 Misses Mary Luster and Louise Young 
    District No 5 W L Blake WS Sheppard J L Blocker and Misses Mable Hollowell and Pearl Cole 
    District No 6 W L McCain Misses Rebecca Mathis and Eliza Beaty

 Respectfully T D Rowell County Judge



The Jimplecute Article September 17, 1904

Notice to School Trustees and Patrons

 The apportionment of the Available School Fund of Marion county having been made for the school year 1904 1905 the following amount of money has been set aside to each school dis trict as provided by law after deducting  the expenses necessary in the conduct  of the schools of the county as follows to wit:

 District No   1......................................... ...842 06  
                      2 ......................................... 2029 08 
                      3 ......................................... 8598 22 
                      4 ......................................... 2460 25 
                      5 ......................................... 2642 87
                      6 ......................................... 1871 82 
Total amount apportioned .................... 18444 30 

    The white and colored trustees of the county are requested to meet as soon as convenient and divide the money between the white and colored schools of their respective districts and report to me in writing as to what the division  is.
     The election of the following teachers  for colored schools is announced. 
    District No 3 A G S Atkins, Rachel H Pendleton, Miss C R Thompson, Maggie Beaty, Mrs L C Walker, Mrs H E Taylor .
    The colored city graded school will open Monday Oct 3.

Respectfully T D Rowell County Judge


The Jimplecute Article September 24, 1904

W L Blake wishes us to announce that his school near Smithland will open first Monday in October.


The Jimplecute Article February 04, 1905

Program of the County Institute for Colored Teachers.

 City High School Building. Friday and Saturday Jan 20th and 21st 1905.

President J C Pitts called the meeting to order promptly Friday morning and after a few remarks reviewing the work and how best to conduct our meetings etc., the roll was called. Quite a number of teachers were present and responded with quotations. After read ing of the minutes of the last mee ting the program for this meeting was taken up. First come was the subject of Grammar by C R Thompson; Classes of Adjectives were discussed under this subject The way the teachers readily answered the many questions given out by the conductor soon showed that they had made some preparations and all were benefited in the discussion and the many good thoughts advanced. Next came was Texas History by Miss R H Mathis, Art. VII of the Texas Constitution was the subject for discussion. The teachers took hold readily and the subject of Public Schools, how they are run etc., was made very plain and very much benefited. Orthography by Miss M F Baylis was the next subject under this was discussed writing, spelling, and diacritical marks which was quite spiri ted for awhile. 

Saturday morning the first subject was Descriptive Geography by Miss R H Pendleton under this was discussed the United States The conductor had some special preparation in this and all the teachers were very much helped in the questions and answers. Physiology- The Nervous System by A G S Atkins, was well discussed and some perplexing problems regarding the human body were sought out. Physical Geography - The Sea Waves and Tides by B J Gilmore was the last subject by no means the least The subject was well presented and the teachers fully discussed the questions presented The meeting was quite interesting throughout and the teachers departed full of information and better prepared to go to their several posts of duty. 

Of the whole body of teachers in the county not more than three were absent which shows conclusively that the teachers of Marion County are interested in their Institute work. The next meeting will be held Friday and Saturday, March 3rd and 4th, 1905, and it is expected that all teachers in the county will be present. 

Judge T D Rowell visited the meeting and made a very interesting and much needed talk. He complimented the teachers on their attendance and extended his services in every way possible in an official way to help the teachers out in their work. His words were well received by all present. 

During the meeting resolutions on the death of Miss L B Richardson, teacher of Mt Olive school district No 3 who departed this life Friday Jan 13th 1905, were presented. The following are the resolutions. 

Whereas it has pleased Almighty God in his wise providence to take from our midst our devoted friend and coworker in the teaching profession, Miss L B Richardson. Coming just in the beginning of the evening of her life and at at a time when her services were most needed and whereas this sudden final dismissal from our midst has cast a gloom of sadness over our county and we deeply regret that such a faithful member has fallen from our ranks and whereas in the death of Miss Richardson we feel that her family has lost a loving and dutiful daughter, the church a faithful member and Marion county a loyal and efficient teacher. Therefore be It resolved that we extend to the bereaved family and friends our heart felt sympathy in these, their hours of bereavement and bow to the will of Him that doeth all things well for we feel that our loss is heavens gain. She has gone to join that Innumerable host and bask in the sunlight of that blissful abode from which no traveler returns.

Resolved further that a copy of these Resolutions be spread upon the face of our Minutes a copy sent to the bereaved family, and a copy be furnished our reporter for publication in the local paper.

 Respectfully submitted Committee: Miss C B Easter, I G Gillham, S E Collins

- Respectfully A G S ATKINS Reporter 


The Jimplecute Article March 11, 1905

Election Proclamation 

A School Trustee election for each of the six school districts in Marion county for the election of Two School Trustees for the white school and Two Trustees for the colored. schools is hereby ordered for Saturday April 2nd 1905.

The term of office of the following named trustees expire on May 1st 1905 to wit:

District No. 1 H A Mims and Era Johnson whites and William Bragg and Maynard McCain, colored.

District No. 2 R A Loomis and R M Simmons, white and Tom Rutherford and Shack Williams, colored.

District No. 3 Geo W Brown and Ed Meyer, whites, and C W Ray and M J Smith, colored.

District No. 4 H E Whatley and W D Fason, whites and Lee Wright and Flem Rand, colored.

District No. 5 W R Stallcup and F O Spearman, whites and PIes Goynes and Antony Gant, colored.

District No. 6 Marion Woods and NA Gatlln, whites and John Brown and Booker Roland, colored.

The election ordered is for the purpose of selecting successors to the above named Trustees.

The election is ordered to be held at the following named places with the presiding officers as designated as follows to wit:

For District No. 1 Mims Chapel, Era Johnson, manager

For District No. 2 Lasater, C A Rowell, manager For District No. 2 Kellyville, M D Kelly, manager

For District No. 3 County Court House, M W ReavIs, manager

For District No. 3 New Prospect Church, D M Bramlett, manager

For District No. 4 Lodi, Spencer Ford, manager

For District No. 4 Grange Hall, JA Sharp, manager

For District No. 5 Smithland, W B Stallcup, manager

For District No. 6 A U Wright place, John W Smith manager

The said election to be held under the general laws of the state of Texas relating to School Trustee Elections Witness my hand and official signature this 8th day of March 1905.



The Jimplecute Article March 25, 1905

Subject to the voters at the School Trustee's election of Marion County Texas to he held on April 1st, 1905.

For School Trustee Dist No 3:(Colored)



The Jimplecute Article April 22, 1905

Colored Teachers Institute

To the Jimplecute

The colored teachers institute met at the Jefferson colored high school building Friday and Saturday April 7th and 8th Friday morning at 10 o'clock the institute was called to order by Prof J C Pitts, president after which the roll was called and many of the teachers responded with quotations. The minutes of last meeting being read and adopted the program for the day was taken up. First subject Civics Under this head Were discussed Texas and United States constitutions.

Texas Constitution- Qualification of voters representatives number of representatives and senators in legislature in Texas and qualification of governors.

U S Constitution- Qualification of voters representatives and senators number in congress qualification of president and vice president. This subject was ably conducted by Prof J Blocker. Many important thoughts and questions were brought out by the teachers and the subject was made very interesting by a lively discussion of the teachers.

A motion prevailed to adjourn until 130 p m when the program was again resumed.

Program Construction of infinitives conducted by Prof J H Mitchell. This subject was made very interesting by the conductors and all seemed to derive much benefit from the discussion and many explanations.

Arithmetic Solving and analyzing problem R 12 to 26 page 12, Sutton Kimbrough's Higher Book conducted by Prof W L Blake, Profs J H Mitchell, AG S Atkins Misses M F Bayliss, R H Pendleton, and M M Hallowell passed to the board and solved and explained some problems in the work. Many important questions of simplicity of process were brought out by the teachers. Boundaries of the states of Georgia, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania and their chief cities and industries were discussed by the teachers. This subject was conducted by Mrs Hattie E Taylor. Much information was gained from the discussion.

Saturday morning reassembled at 10 o'clock and roll called. Subject for discussion, Physiology the sick room and disinfectants conducted by Miss C B Easter. The conductor having made some special preparations this subject was made very interesting. The conductors being absent the subject of U S History was dropped. The program was very interesting throughout and notwithstanding the fact that many of the schools are closed in the rural districts the meeting was well attended which shows conclusively that the teachers of Marion county are solely and wholly interested in their school work. This being the last meeting for this school year many of tee teachers departed for a quiet and happy vacation.

Respectfully submitted- A G S Atkins


The Jimplecute Article April 29, 1905
Notice to School Teachers

I call attention to the Teachers' Examination which takes place in this city Friday and Saturday, May 5th and 6th for teachers` certificates. All teachers whose certificates have expired; or will expire before Sept 1st of this year are advised to take said examination if they desire to teach in Marion county as they will have no other opportunity to be examined till Sept. It is my opinion that all teachers contracts will be entered into for the next school year before Sept examination and those without certificates to teach can not hope to be elected.

Respectfully, T D ROWELL, County Judge


The Jimplecute Article May 20, 1905

Our city school for colored children was favored with an able address from Colonel Horace Welch whom we found possessed of masterly capabilities of entertaining and old alike. Being previously notified several parents and friends were found in the audience and gladly joined in the hearty applause given Col. Welch by the pupils.

The address teeming with wholesome things respecting truth honesty of purpose and purity of life and followed with an excellent original poem spread over space of fifty minutes yet not a thought seemed to escape the attention of those present.

Immediately following the address when applause seemed to wane but slowly much of the pent up enthusiasm was freed in singing the Star Spangled Banner in a manner convincing Col Welch doubtless that since the address was ably rendered it was as well received.

It goes without saying that we have a just sense of appreciation for any and for all efforts put forth to assist us in our struggle to ripen into truer manhood and womanhood and into truer and more useful citizenship. 

J C Pitts Jefferson Tex May 12 '05


Hudgins-Blake House Historical Marker Text
Built during 1855-67 era, by William P. Hudgins, the house had a series of short-term owners before W. L. and Mattie A. Blake, prominent Jefferson Central (Negro) School teachers, bought it in 1897;


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