When Freedom Cried Out
The Freedmen's Bureau in Texas



Cotton ready for harvest.


Bibliography - The Freedmen's Bureau in Texas

Ira Christopher Colby, The Freedmen's Bureau in Texas and Its Impact on the Emerging Social Welfare System and Black-White Social Relations, 1865-1885 (D.S.W. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1984).

Barry A. Crouch, The Freedmen's Bureau and Black Texans (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1992).

Barry A. Crouch, "The Freedmen's Bureau and the Thirtieth Sub-District in Texas: Smith County and Its Environs during Reconstruction," Chronicles of Smith County, Spring 1972.

Barry A. Crouch and Larry Madaras, "Reconstructing Black Families: Perspectives from the Texas Freedmen's Bureau Records," Prologue 18 (Summer 1986).

Barry A. Crouch, "View from Within: Letters of Gregory Barrett, Freedmen's Bureau Agent," Chronicles of Smith County, Winter 1973.

Barry Crouch, "Hidden Sources of Black History: The Texas Freedmen's Bureau Records as a Case Study," Southwestern Historical Quarterly 83 ( January 1981)(January, 1980).

Barry A. Crouch, "The Freedmen's Bureau in Colorado County, Texas, 1865-1868," Part 2, (pp. 147-175) Second installment of a detailed look at the activities of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands in Colorado County.

Barry A. Crouch, “All the Vile Passions’:  The Texas Black Code of 1866,” Southwestern Historical Quarterly  97, no. 1 (July, 1993).

Barry A. Crouch, “The Freedmen’s Bureau in Beaumont (Part One),” Texas Gulf Historical and Biographical Record  28, no. 1 (1992).

Barry A. Crouch, “The Freedmen’s Bureau in Beaumont (Part Two),” Texas Gulf Historical and Biographical Record  29, no. 1 (1993).

Barry A. Crouch, “A Political Education:  George T. Ruby and the Texas Freedmen’s Bureau,” Houston Review  18, no. 2 (1996).

Ross Nathaniel Dudney, Texas Reconstruction: The Role of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands, 1865-1870, Smith County, (Tyler) Texas (M.S. thesis, Texas A&I University, 1986).

Claude Elliott, "The Freedmen's Bureau in Texas," Southwestern Historical Quarterly 56 (July 1952).

Elaine C. Everly. "Freedmen's Bureau Records: An Overview." Prologue: Quarterly of the National Archives and Records Administration (Summer 1997): 95-99.

Alton Hornsby, Jr., "The Freedmen's Bureau Schools in Texas, 1865-1870," Southwestern Historical Quarterly 76 (April 1963). 1973

LaVonne Roberts Jackson,  Freedom and Family:  The Freedmen's Bureau and African-American Women in Texas in the Reconstruction Era, 1865-1872." (diss.)  Washington, D.C.:  Howard University,  May 1996.

Neal, DianeNeal, and Thomas W. Kremm, “’What Shall We Do with the Negro?’:  The Freedmen’s Bureau in Texas,” East Texas Historical Journal  27, no. 2 (1989).

William L.Richter,  “Who Was the Real Head of the Texas Freedmen’s Bureau?:  The Role of Brevet Colonel William H. Sinclair as Acting Assistant Inspector General,” Military History of the Southwest  20, no. 2 (Fall, 1990).

Richter, William L.,  Overreached on All Sides: The Freedmen's Bureau Administrators in Texas, 1865-1868

James Smallwood, "Black Education in Reconstruction Texas: The Contributions of the Freedmen's Bureau and Benevolent Societies," East Texas Historical Journal 19 (Spring 1981).

James Smallwood, "Charles E. Culver, a Reconstruction Agent in Texas," Civil War History 27 (December 1981).

James Smallwood, "The Freedmen's Bureau Reconsidered," Texana 11 (Fall 1973)

James Smallwood, ”Black Education in Reconstruction Texas:  The Contributions of the Freedmen’s Bureau and Benevolent Societies,” East Texas Historical Journal  19, no. 1 (1981).

James Smallwood, “The Freedmen’s Bureau Reconsidered:  Local Agents and the Black Community,” Texana  11, no. 4 (1973).

James Smallwood, "Early 'Freedom Schools': Black Self-Help and Education in Reconstruction-Texas, a Case Study," Negro History Bulletin 41 ( January-February 1978).

Esther Lane Thompson, The Influence of the Freedmen's Bureau on the Education of the Negro in Texas (M.A. thesis, Texas Southern University, 1956).

The Reconstruction Era African-Americans in Texas